What is Bus or System Bus ?

A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers, In other words, A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. This is a bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. There’s also an expansion bus that enables expansion boards to access the CPU and memory. Buses are divided into three categories

  • Address bus
  • Data bus
  • Control bus
Address bus

  Addressing – A bus has address lines, which match those of the processor. This allows data to be sent to or from specific memory locations.

Data is stored, manipulated, and processed in system memory at various locations. System memory is like a large sea of information full of fish ( data ). Our computer has to move information in and out of memory, and it has to keep track of which data is stored

where. The computer knows where all the fishes are, but it has to transmit that information to the CPU and other devices. It has to keep a map of the different address locations in memory, and it has to be able to transmit and describe those memory locations to the other components so that they can access the data stored there.

The info used to describe the memory locations travels along the address bus. The size or width of the address bus directly corresponds to the number of address locations that can be accessed. This simply means that the more memory address locations that a processor can address, the more RAM it has the capability of using.

It makes sense, right? So An address bus is a computer bus that is used to specify a physical address. When a processor or DMA ( Direct Memory Access ) -enabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, specifies memory location it specifies that memory location on the address bus ( the value to be read or written is sent on the data bus).


Data bus

      A data bus is a system within a computer or device, consisting of a connector or set of wires, that provides transportation for data.

The main work of the data bus is to carry digital information. A data bus can be viewed as a group or collection of wires connecting different parts of a circuit with a wire carrying a different signal. The data bus is connected to the inputs of several gates and to the outputs of several gates. A data bus may be time-multiplexed to serve different functions at different times. The ISA architecture which is also developed by IBM is used for defector standards and is widely used for high performance. Thus, the main function of the data bus is to connect the system to external devices. There are many types of data buses, which can connect the PC to the mobile and other external devices in order to download software. Thus data bus is a medium that transfers the data from one place to another.

Control Bus

  The control unit is a component central Processing Unit that gives operating instructions to the processor. It tells the computer memory automatic logic unit and input and output device how to respond to instructions sent to the processor.


What do you understand by USB Port?

USB Stands for Universal Serial Bus. Universal Serial Bus is the most widely used hardware interface for attaching peripherals to a computer.

USB became the standard for connecting keyboards, mice, printers and hard drives, etc.



What is MICR

MICR full form for ink Character Reader.

It’s could be a character-recognition technology used mainly by the industry to case the processing and clearance of cheques and other documents The bank’s code number and cheque number are printed on the cheques with a special kind of ink that contains particles of magnetic material that are computer-readable.

The MICR encoding called the MICR line is at the bottom a part of cheques and other vouchers and typically includes the document-type indicator, bank code, account number, cheque number, cheque amount, and a checkout indicator.

The technology allows MICR readers to scan and recognize the info directly into a data-collection device. Universal Product Code Reader might be a tool used for reading bar-coded data (data within the form of light and dark lines).

Bar-coded data is usually make utilized in labeling goods, numbering books, etc. It’s visiting be a hand-held scanner or could even be embedded during a stationary scanner. A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is electronic.

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